• Hacker Intelligence Initiative (HII)

    Issued approximately six times a year, the Imperva Hacker Intelligence Initiative (HII) reports go inside the cyber-underground to provide in-depth, forward-looking analysis at trending hacking techniques and interesting attack campaigns. These provocative, creative and innovative research papers aim not to solely understand what has happened in the past, but to deep dive into what is ahead and what’s needed to proactively stay ahead of hackers’ next moves.

  • HTTP/2: In-depth Analysis of the Top Four Flaws of the Next Generation Web Protocol

    This report analyzes the four high-profile vulnerabilities which the Imperva Defense Center team uncovered in the latest implementation of the Worldwide Web’s underlying protocol. Read this report to find out more about the exploitable vulnerabilities which the team discovered in nearly all of the new HTTP/2 components.

  • Black Hat SEO: A Detailed Analysis of Illegal SEO Tactics

    Researchers at the Imperva Defense Center have discovered a series of long-running, multi-vector search engine optimization (SEO) campaigns that exploit vulnerabilities in thousands of legitimate websites to illegally increase the SEO results for malicious websites. Read this report to find out how hackers use these botnet-driven SEO attacks to promote malicious websites.

  • Man in the Cloud (MITC) Attacks

    In this report, we demonstrate a new type of attack we call “Man in the Cloud” (MITC). These MITC attacks rely on common file synchronization services (such as GoogleDrive and Dropbox) as their infrastructure for command and control (C&C), data exfiltration, and remote access. Without using any exploits, we show how simple re-configuration of these services can turn them into a devastating attack tool that is not easily detected by common security measures.

    Since most organizations either allow their users to use file synchronization services, or even rely on these services as part of their business toolbox, we think that MITC attacks will become prevalent in the wild. As a result, we encourage enterprises to shift the focus of their security effort from preventing infections and endpoint protection to securing their business data and applications at the source.

  • Attacking SSL when using RC4: Breaking SSL with a 13-year-old RC4 Weakness

    RC4 is the most popular stream cipher in the world. It is used to protect as many as 30 percent of SSL traffic today, probably summing up to billions of TLS connections every day.

    In this paper, we revisit the Invariance Weakness—a 13-year-old vulnerability of RC4 that is based on huge classes of RC4 weak keys, which was first published in the FMS paper in 2001. We show how this vulnerability can be used to mount several partial plaintext recovery attacks on SSL-protected data when RC4 is the cipher of choice, recovering part of secrets such as session cookies, passwords, and credit card numbers. This paper will describe the Invariance Weakness in detail, explain its impacts, and recommend some mitigating actions.

  • Anatomy of Comment Spam

    Comment spammers are most often motivated by search engine optimization, so that they can use a promoted site for advertisement and malware distribution. Attackers are also known to use comment spam for the purpose of click fraud. The comment spam issue has become so prevalent that organizations are fighting back, by implementing mitigation services. Interestingly, there have been incidents of spammers fighting anti-spammers in an attempt to shut down those mitigation services, and many of those counter attacks have been successful.

    In our research, we examined the attacker’s point of view, including the comment spam techniques and tools. In addition, we examined the victim’s point of view to understand how organizations deal with comment spam today.

  • The Non-Advanced Persistent Threat

    In this report, we focus on the phases of escalating privileges and collecting information. We expose some powerful, yet extremely simple techniques that allow attackers to efficiently expand their reach within an infected organization. We show how attackers achieve their goals without resorting to zero-day vulnerabilities and sophisticated exploits, and how organizations can protect themselves against the outcomes of such attacks.

    The target of the attack we analyze in our report is the enterprise’s confidential information stored on file servers, Microsoft SharePoint, or database servers. Confidential information may include intellectual property, deal data, source code, payment card information, personal information, trade secrets, research data, financial secrets, etc.

  • Blind SQL Injection Attacks Evasion

    Blindfolded SQL injection does not result in elaborate SQL error messages that are typically used to add SQL injection signatures. New techniques in SQL injection are rendering traditional “security by obscurity” approaches ineffective. Find out why application level security can handle the blindfolded SQL injection attacks better.

  • SQL Injection Signatures Evasion

    If you think SQL injection signatures are enough to protect your web applications, you will pay for it dearly. Imperva research labs delves into the details of how hackers can evade SQL signatures and get to your data.